Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar Disorder: Causes, Symptoms and Treatments

Bipolar disorders, which are also known as manic depression, are illnesses that cause mood disorders manifested by depression phases causing excitation. These phases appear to be in response to stress, or for no apparent reason and can vary in intensity and intersperse periods of stability. It is a medical condition that is characterized by changes in brain function. Sometimes everyone will experience periods of happiness, sadness, excitement and being confronted with difficulties. However, in the case of bipolar disorders, these changes are out of proportion. They reach such intensity that the person does not realize that she crossed the line, or the person suffers from depression so she is paralyzed and is haunted by thoughts of suicidalThis condition causes problems with family, work, and financial problems, sometimes even legal issues. The disease can lead to hospitalization.

Symptoms of Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar Disorder

In depressive phase:

  • Feeling sad, depressed mood most of the day, nearly every day for at least two weeks
  • Loss of energy and tiredness
  • Loss of interest and pleasure
  • Sleep problems (insomnia or hypersomnia)
  • Disorders with loss of appetite or weight gain
  • Psychomotor agitation or retardation
  • Decreased concentration or ability to think, or indecisiveness
  • Feelings of guilt
  • Sudden social withdrawal or sudden aggressive behaviour
  • Recurrent thoughts of death (60% of cases); recurrent suicidal ideation (15% of cases)

In manic phase:

  • Increased self-esteem or grandiosity
  • Boundless energy and intense happiness or excessive irritability
  • Decreased need for sleep
  • Flow of accelerated speech or need to talk incessantly
  • Quick thoughts or feeling too full of ideas
  • Distractibility: inability to focus attention
  • Increased activity in social, occupational, or school
  • Psychomotor agitation, increased energy
  • Increased excessively and high risk of negative consequences pleasures: shopping, sexuality, financial investments
  • Affected individuals may also experience delusions (beliefs farms, but impossible) and hallucinations. Periods of mania may vary in intensity.

Difference between mania and hypomania

Mania is defined by the presence, for at least a week, a significant functional impairment that may lead to hospitalization or onset of psychotic symptoms (hallucinations, delusions, paranoia). In hypomania, duration of symptoms may be shorter or about four days. These symptoms do not cause significant decrease in functioning; On the contrary, people with hypomania phase are often more functional than usual (increased energy, better concentration, greater sociability). This phase of the disease can even look attractive in the eyes of the sufferer, but it can also discourage some people seeking or continuing treatment for these disorders.

Who is affected?

The first symptoms usually trigger between the ages of 15 and 25 years. For cons, the more severe symptoms usually appear around the age of thirty years. many men as women are affected by bipolar disorder.

The causes of Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar disorders are not yet fully understood by researchers. By cons, some evidence shows that these disorders involve several genes, making the symptoms and different treatments for each individual, and explain the higher incidence in the same family. triggers the disease in genetically susceptible individuals include: l use of stimulants or drugs, a high level of stress and lack of sleep.

Treatments for Bipolar Disorder

Biological, psychological and community treatment of bipolar disorder are intended to improve the overall condition of the person affected taking into account the various bio psychosocial factors. With proper treatment, most people with bipolar can live satisfying lives and work well at home and at work. Biological treatment in for this disorder is typically by mood stabilizers that are the cornerstone of treatment. These drugs are neither “stimulants” nor “calming.” As their name suggests, they stabilize mood and maintain an adequate level. Commonly people who suffer from this mental issue use a medication for years and in general life. There are three main mood stabilizers used in the treatment and prevention of this disorder: Lithium (Li), the EPIVAL (divalproex) and Tegretol (carbamazepine). There are other biological treatments. Psychotherapy In addition, it is possible to undergo psychotherapy. Psych education is a very effective therapy for people who suffer from this mental disorder. The aim is to develop adaptation strategies or prevent episodes of mania in regulating sleep, diet and physical activity. An information session may be offered to families under this therapy. There are also other beneficial and effective therapies, such as cognitive-behavioural therapy. As for the community, it offers many services to people with a better recovery. Triad: mood stabilizer, lifestyle (routine) and personal (psych education) is generally the path to stability.