Personality Disorders


Personality is defined by the totality of emotional traits and behaviour of an individual (character). You can say it’s the “gist” of being the person, how to feel the emotions or the “gist” of acting.

A personality disorder appears when these features are very inflexible and ill-fitting, or impairs the individual’s adaptation to the situations they face, causing him, or more commonly to those who are close to him, sufferings and annoyance. Generally these individuals are poorly motivated for treatment, since the character traits just cause suffering to themselves, they disrupt their relationships with other people, making friends and family advice treatment. Personality disorders usually appear in early adulthood and are permanent (remain for life) if not treated.

There are multiple causes of these disorders, most of which are related to childhood and adolescent experiences of the individual.

It is difficult to treat these disorders and would require a very long time too because when it comes to character changes, the individual will have to change their own “way of being” for the treatment to be effective.


There are many types of Personality Disorders, as seen below:

Personality Disorder


  • Suspicious individuals who feel cheated by others and doubts the loyalty of others
  • Observing and interpreting actions of others as threatening
  • Are resentful and release attacks in his character or reputation
  • Often jealous and unfounded suspicions about the fidelity of their partners and friends.

Schizoid Personality Disorder:

  • Individuals distanced from the social relations that were not willing to enjoy intimate relationships, doing solitary activities
  • Little or no interest in sex with another person, and little or no pleasure in their activities.
  • Have no close friends or confidants
  • Do not care about praise or criticism
  • Being emotionally cold and distant.


  • Eccentric and strange individuals who have bizarre beliefs with experience of illusions, thoughts and rants.
  • Lack of friends and a lot of anxiety in social interaction.

Borderline Personality Disorder:

  • Unstable individuals in their emotions, and impulsive, with incredible efforts to avoid abandonment (even suicide attempts)
  • Have outbursts of inappropriate anger
  • People around you are considered great but against refusals become bad quickly, with disregarding previously valued qualities.
  • Usually present a hyper emotional reactivity in which situations are great good or excellent, and the bad or unfavourable are bad or catastrophic.

Narcissistic Personality Disorder:

  • Individuals who consider themselves grandiose, with need for admiration, and who despise others, believing they are special and exploiting others in their social relationships, becoming arrogant.
  • Like to talk about themselves, always emphasizing their qualities and sometimes counting advantages of situations.
  • Do not care about the suffering they cause in others and often need to demean and humiliate others to feel better.


  • Individuals who disregard and violate the rights of others, not conforming to standards.
  • Liars, deceivers and impulsive, always seeking advantage over others.
  • Often angry, irresponsible and total lack of remorse, even if they say they do feel remorseful, they would once again try to take advantage.
  • Surface may establish romantic relationships, but are not able to maintain more lasting bonds.

Histrionic Personality Disorder:

  • Individuals are easily emotional, always seeking attention, feeling bad when they are not the center of attention.
  • Are seductive, with rapid changes of the emotions.
  • Try to impress others by making use of role plays, and tend to interpret the relationships as more intimate than they actually are.

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder:

  • Individuals concerned with orderliness, perfectionism and control, always attentive to details, lists, rules, order and schedules.
  • Excessive devotion to work, give little importance to leisure.
  • Stubborn, do not throw anything away and cannot leave tasks to others.


  • Shy (overly) individuals, very sensitive to criticism, avoiding social activities or relationships with others
  • Reserved and concerned with criticism and rejection.
  • Generally do not engage in new activities
  • Sees themselves as inadequate or unattractive and incapable.

Dependent Personality Disorder:

  • Individuals who need to be taken care of, submissive, always afraid of separations.
  • Have difficulty making decisions
  • They need others to assume responsibility for their actions
  • They do not disagree neither do they start projects
  • They feel very bad when alone, avoiding it at all costs.

The treatment of these disorders based on Psychotherapy (analytical or behavioural orientation in most cases) Analysis. Sometimes it should also treat other disorders that develop along with these, and in most cases, because of these. Depression and anxiety associated with these disorders commonly appear. The demand for care is generally encouraged by friends and family who are far more bothered by disorder when the individual himself. We cannot forget that many of these features are part of the normal traits of many individuals, and only when these traits are very rigid and does not constitute an adaptive disorder.